The effect of microwave radiation on grinding kinetics by selection function and breakage function - A case study of low-grade siliceous manganese ores

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Mining Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University (IKIU), Qazvin

2 Department of Mining Engineering, Islamic Azad University- South Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran


In this study, the effect of microwave radiation on grindability and grinding kinetics were investigated. Microwave treatment was performed using an oven with 1100 W power and 2.45 GHz frequency. In order to study the breakage mechanism the grindability from the standard Bond ball mill work index (BBMWI) test was used with the selection function and breakage function as grinding parameters for treated and untreated samples. Based on the results of grindability, the work index (Wi) of a standard Bond ball mill after 4 min of microwave radiation decreased from 12.46 kWh/t to 6.45 kWh/t. selection function results showed that the specific rate of breakage (Si) value for the size fraction -3350+2360 µm increased to 8.42% after microwave treatment. Cumulative breakage function results showed that microwave-treated products were coarser in comparison with untreated products. This phenomenon is more significant in coarse fractions, where the effect of microwave treatment is more obvious.

Graphical Abstract

The effect of microwave radiation on grinding kinetics by selection function and breakage function - A case study of low-grade siliceous manganese ores


  • Improvement of grindability ore by microwave treatment. 
  • Intergranular cracks formed between hematite with gangues minerals after microwave treatment.
  • Increasing the special rate of breakage of manganese ore up to 8.42% using microwave treatment.
  • The microwave treated products are coarser than the microwave untreated products.


[1] G. Sheng-Hui, C.H. Guo, P. Jin-Hui, J. Chen, L. Dong-Bo, L. Li-Jun, Microwave assisted grinding of ilmenite ore, T. Nonferr. Metal. Soc. 21 (2011) 2122-2126.
[2] K. Barani, S.M.J. Koleini, B. Rezaei, Magnetic properties of an iron ore sample after microwave heating, Sep. Purif. Technol. 76 (2011) 331-336.
[3] C. Cirpar, Heat treatment of iron ore agglomerates with microwave energy. Ms Thesis, Science in Mining Engineering, 2005.
[4] D.A. Jones, T.P. Lelyveld, S.D. Mavrofidis, S.W. Kingman, N.J. Miles, Microwave heating applications in environmental engineering- A review, Resour. Conserv. Recy. 34 (2002) 75-90.
[5] D.A. Jones, S.W. Kingman, D.N. Whittles, I.S. Lowndes, The influence of microwave energy delivery method on strength reduction in ore samples, Chem. Eng. Process. 46 (2007) 291-299.
[6] S.W. Kingman, K. Jackson, S.M. Bradshaw, N.A. Rowson, R. Greenwood, An investigation into the influence of microwave treatment on mineral ore comminution, Powder Technol. 146 (2004) 176-184.
[7] M.F. Eskibalcl, S.G. Ozkan, An investigation of effect of microwave energy on electrostatic separation of Colemanite and ulexite, Miner. Eng. 31 (2012) 90-97.
[8] A.M. Imahdy, M. Farahat, T. Hirajima, Comparison between the effect of microwave irradiation and conventional heat treatments on the magnetic properties of chalcopyrite and pyrite, Advanced Powder Technol. 27 (2016) 2424-2431.
[9] K.E. Waters, N.A. Rowson, R.W. Greenwood, A.J. Williams, The effect of heat treatment on the magnetic properties of pyrite, Miner. Eng. 21 (2008) 679-682.
[10] W. Xia, J. Yang, C. Liang, Effect of microwave pretreatment on oxidized coal flotation, Powder Technol. 233 (2013) 186-189.
[11] M. Ai-Harahsheh, S.W. Kingman, N. Hankins, C. Somerfield, S. Bradshaw, W. Louw, The influence of microwaves on the leaching kinetics of Chalcopyrite, Miner. Eng. 18 (2005) 1259-1268.
[12] S.W. Kingman, K. Jackson, A. Cumbane, S.W. Bradshaw, N.A. Rowson, R. Greenwood, Recent developments in microwave-assisted comminution, Int. J. Miner. Process. 74 (2004) 71-83.
[13] L. Sikong, T. Bunsin, Mechanical property and cutting rate of microwave treated granite rock, Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 31 (2009) 447-452.
[14] S. Song, E.F. Campos-Toro, A. Lopez-Valdivieso, Formation of micro-fractures on an Oolitic iron ore under microwave treatment and its effect on selective fragmentation, Powder Technol. 243 (2013) 155-160.
[15] B.K. Sahoo, S. De, B.C. Meikap, Improvement of grinding characteristics of Indian coal by microwave pre-treatment, Fuel Process. Technol. 92 (2011) 920-1928.
[16] S.M.J. Koleini, K. Barani, B. Rezaei, The effect of microwave treatmeant on dry grinding kinetics of ore, Min. Process. Ext. Met. Rev. 33 (2012) 159-169.
[17] N.L. Weiss, SME Mineral Processing Handbook, Society of Mining Engineers AIME, New York, 1985.
[18] S.M.J. Koleini and K. Barani, Microwave Heating Applications in Mineral Processing, 2012.
[19] K.E. Haque, Microwave energy for mineral treatment processes - A brief review, Int. J. Miner. Process. 57 (1999) 1-24.
[20] L.G. Austin, R.R. Klimpel, P.T. Lucki, Process Engineering of Size Reductions: In Methods for Direct Experimental Determination of the Breakage Functions. Chapter.9, New York: SME-AIME, 1984.
[21] L.G. Austin and P.T. Luckie, Methods for determination of breakage distribution parameters, Powder Technol. 5 (1971) 215-222. 
[22] A, Farzanegan, Knowledge-based optimization of mineral grinding circuits. PhD Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada, 1988.
[23] L.G. Austin, K. Julianelli, C.L. Schneider, Simulation of wet ball milling of iron ore at Carajas, Brazil [J], Int. J. Miner. Process. 84 (2007) 157-171.
[24] L.G. Austin, P. Bagga, M. Celik, Breakage properties of some materials in a laboratory ball mill, Powder Technol. 28 (1981) 235-241.
[25] L.G. Austin, A review introduction to the mathematical description of grinding as rate process, Powder Technol. 5 (1972) 1-17.
[26] V. Bozkurt, I. Ozgur, Dry grinding kinetics of Colemanite, Powder Technol. 176 (2007) 88-92.
Volume 4, Issue 1
March 2018
Pages 39-47
  • Receive Date: 27 June 2018
  • Revise Date: 14 July 2018
  • Accept Date: 17 July 2018
  • First Publish Date: 07 August 2018