Numerical simulation of nanofluids flow and heat transfer through isosceles triangular channels

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Quchan Branch, Islamic Azad University Quchan, Iran

2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

3 Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 Iran International Academy of Science, Engineering, and Technology, Ottawa, Canada


Nanofluids are stable suspensions of nanoparticles in conventional heat transfer fluids (base fluids) that exhibit better thermal characteristics compared to those of the base fluids. It is important to clarify various aspects of nanofluids behavior. In order to identify the thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of nanofluids flowing through non-circular ducts, in the present study the laminar flow forced convective heat transfer of Al2O3/water nanofluid thorough channels with isosceles triangle cross section with constant wall heat flux was studied numerically. The effects of nanoparticle concentration, nanofluid flow rate and geometry of channels on the thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of nanofluids were studied. The single-phase model was used in simulations under steady state conditions. Results reveal that the local and average heat transfer coefficients of nanofluids are greater than those of the base fluid. Heat transfer coefficient enhancement of nanofluids increases with increase in nanoparticle concentration and Reynolds number. The local heat transfer coefficient of the base fluid and that of the nanofluids decrease with the axial distance from the channel inlet. Results also indicate that an increase in the apex angle of the channel, decreases the Nusselt number and heat transfer coefficient. The wall friction coefficient decreases with increasing axial distance from the channel inlet and approaches a constant value in the developed region. Friction coefficient and pressure drop decrease by increasing the apex angle of the channels. 

Graphical Abstract

Numerical simulation of nanofluids flow and heat transfer through isosceles triangular channels


  • Laminar heat transfer nanofluid inside an isosceles triangle cross section is investigated.
  • Higher volume concentration is conducive to heat transfer.
  • Increased nanoparticle concentration increases the pumping power. 
  • Increasing the apex angle of the channels decreases the friction coefficient and pressure drop.


[1] J.C. Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 2nd ed., Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, 1881.
[2] R. Lotfi, Y. Saboohi, A.M. Rashidi, Numerical study of forced convective heat transfer of nanofluids: Comparison of different approaches, Int. Commun. Heat Mass, 37 (2010) 74-78.
[3] M. Saberi, M. Kalbasi, A. Alipourzade, Numerical study of forced convective heat transfer of nanofluids inside a vertical tube, Int. J. Therm. Technol. 3 (2013) 10-15.
[4] V. Bianco, O. Manca, S. Nardini, Numerical Simulation of water/Al2O3 nanofluid turbulent convection, Adv. Mech. Eng. 2 (2010) Article ID 976254.
[5] V. Bianco, O. Manca, S. Nardini, Numerical investigation on nanofluids turbulent convection heat transfer inside a circular tube, Int. J. Therm. Sci. 50 (2011) 341-349.
[6] M. Nazififard, M. Nematollahi, K. Jafarpur, K.Y. Suh, Numerical simulation of water-based alumina nanofluid in subchannel geometry, Sci. Technol. Nucl. Ins. 2012 (2012) Article ID 928406.
[7] M. Rostamani, S.F. Hosseinizadeh, M. Gorji, J.M. Khodadadi, Numerical study of turbulent forced convection flow of nanofluids in a long horizontal duct considering variable properties, Int. Commun. Heat Mass, 37 (2010) 1426-1431.
[8] M.R. Ghavam, M. Hojjat, S.G. Etemad, Numerical investigation on forced convection heat transfer of nanofluids through isosceles triangular ducts, in: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Nanotechnology: Fundamentals and Applications, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 2012.
[9] E. Ebrahimnia-Bajestan, H. Niazmand, W. Duangthongsuk, S. Wongwises, Numerical investigation of effective parameters in convective heat transfer of nanofluids flowing under a laminar flow regime, Int. J. Heat Mass Tran. 54 (2011) 4376-4388.
[10] S. Mirmasoumi, A. Behzadmehr, Numerical study of laminar mixed convection of a nanofluid in a horizontal tube using two-phase mixture model, Appl. Therm. Eng. 28 (2008) 717-727.
[11] P.K. Namburu, D.K. Das, K.M. Tanguturi, R.S. Vajjha, Numerical study of turbulent flow and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids considering variable properties, Int. J. Therm. Sci. 48 (2009) 290-302.
[12] S.E.B. maïga, C.T. Nguyen, N. Galanis, G. Roy, Heat transfer behaviours of nanofluids in a uniformly heated tube, Superlattice. Microst. 35 (2004) 543-557.
[13] S.E.B. Maïga, S.J. Palm, C.T. Nguyen, G. Roy, N. Galanis, Heat transfer enhancement by using nanofluids in forced convection flows, Int. J. Heat Fluid Fl. 26 (2005) 530-546.
[14] S. Tahir, M. Mital, Numerical investigation of laminar nanofluid developing flow and heat transfer in a circular channel, Appl. Therm. Eng. 39 (2012) 8-14. 
[15] M. Nuim Labib, M.J. Nine, H. Afrianto, H. Chung, H. Jeong, Numerical investigation on effect of base fluids and hybrid nanofluid in forced convective heat transfer, Int. J. Therm. Sci. 71 (2013) 163-171.
[16] A. Azari, M. Kalbasi, M. Rahimi, CFD and experimental investigation on the heat transfer characteristics of alumina nanofluids under the laminar flow regime, Braz. J. Chem. Eng. 31 (2014) 469-481.
[17] M. Izadi, A. Behzadmehr, D. Jalali-Vahida, Numerical study of developing laminar forced convection of a nanofluid in an annulus, Int. J. Therm. Sci. 48 (2009) 2119-2129.
[18] M. Shariat, A. Akbarinia, A.H. Nezhad, A. Behzadmehr, R. Laur, Numerical study of two phase laminar mixed convection nanofluid in elliptic ducts, Appl. Therm. Eng. 31 (2011) 2348-2359.
[19] S.G. Etemad, M. Hojjat, J. Thibault, J.B. Haelssig, Heat transfer of nanofluids through a Square channel: A numerical study, in: Proceedings of the International Conference on Nanotechnology: Fundamentals and Applications, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 2010.
[20] S. Zeinali Heris, A. Kazemi-Beydokhti, S.H. Noie, S. Rezvan, Numerical Study on Convective Heat Transfer of Al2O3/Water, CuO/Water and Cu/Water Nanofluids through Square Cross-Section Duct in Laminar Flow, Eng. Appl. Comp. Fluid, 6 (2012) 1-14.
[21] P.R. Mashaei, S.M. Hosseinalipour, M.B.M. Dirani, 3-D Numerical simulation of nanofluid laminar forced convection in a channel with localized heating, Aust. J. Bas. Appl. Sci. 6 (2012) 479-489.
[22] M.K. Abdolbaqi, C.S.N. Azwadi, R. Mamat, Heat transfer augmentation in the straight channel by using nanofluids, Case Stud. Therm. Eng. 3 (2014) 59-67.
[23] S.Z. Heris, F. Oghazian, M. Khademi, E. Saeedi, Simulation of convective heat transfer and pressure drop in laminar flow of Al2O3/water and CuO/water nanofluids through square and triangular cross-sectional ducts, J. Renew. Energ. Environ. 2 (2015) 6-18.
[24] T. Nassan, S. Zeinali Heris, S.H. Noie Baghban, A comparison of experimental heat transfer characteristics for Al2O3/water and CuO/water nanofluids in square cross-section duct, Int. Commun. Heat Mass, 37 (2010) 924-928.
[25] B. Mehrjou, S.Z. Heris, K. Mohamadifard, Experimental study of CuO/Water nanofluid turbulent convective heat transfer in square cross-section duct, Exp. Heat Transfer, 28 (2015) 282-297.
[26] R.-Y. Jou, S.-C. Tzeng, Numerical research of nature convective heat transfer enhancement filled with nanofluids in rectangular enclosures, Int. Commun. Heat Mass, 33 (2006) 727-736.
[27] S. Zeinali Heris, S.H. Noie, E. Talaii, J. Sargolzaei, Numerical investigation of Al2O3/water nanofluid laminar convective heat transfer through triangular ducts, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6 (2011) 179.
[28] H.E. Ahmed, M.I. Ahmed, M.Z. Yusoff, Heat transfer enhancement in a triangular duct using compound nanofluids and turbulators, Appl. Therm. Eng. 91 (2015) 191-201.
[29] H.E. Ahmed, M.Z. Yusoff, M.N.A. Hawlader, M.I. Ahmed, B.H. Salman, A.S. Kerbeet, Turbulent heat transfer and nanofluid flow in a triangular duct with vortex generators, Int. J. Heat Mass Tran. 105 (2017) 495-504.
[30] S.Z. Heris, Z. Edalati, S.H. Noie, O. Mahian, Experimental investigation of Al2O3/water nanofluid through equilateral triangular duct with constant wall heat flux in laminar flow, Heat Transfer Eng. 35 (2014) 1173-1182.
[31] S.Z. Heris, F. Ahmadi, O. Mahian, Pressure drop and performance characteristics of water-based Al2O3 and CuO nanofluids in a triangular duct, J. Disper. Sci. Technol. 34 (2013) 1368-1375.
[32] B.C. Pak, Y.I. Cho, Hydrodynamic and heat transfer study of dispersed fluids with submicron metallic oxide particles, Exp. Heat Transfer, 11 (1998) 151-170.
[33] R.K. Shah, A.L. London, Laminar Flow Forced Convection in Ducts, Academic Press, New York, 1978.
[34] S.G. Etemad, Laminar Heat transfer to viscous non-Newtonian fluids in non-circular ducts, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1995.
[35] S.G. Etemad, A.S. Mujumdar, R. Nassef, Simultaneously developing flow and heat transfer of non-Newtonian fluids in equilateral triangular duct, Appl. Math. Model. 20 (1996) 898-908.
[36] Y.A. Çengel, J.M. Cimbala, Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, Boston, 2006.