Effect of the temperature difference between gas and organic dust on propagating spherical flames

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology Narmak, Tehran, 16846, Iran


A new analytical study performed to investigate the effect of the temperature difference between gas and particle in propagation of the spherical flames. The combustible system is containing uniformly distributed volatile fuel particles in an oxidizing gas (Air) mixture. The model includes evaporation of volatile matter of dust particles to known gaseous fuel (methane) and the single-stage reaction of gas-phase combustion. The structure of the flame is composed of a preheat zone, reaction zone, and convection zone. The study is within the framework of large activation energy and quasi-steady assumptions. The validity of theoretical prediction is confirmed by data presented in other literature including burning velocity. The obtained results illustrate the effects of the above parameter on the variations of the flame speed, temperature, particle mass fraction, flame temperature, concentration, and burning velocity for gas and particle.


[1] Elkotb, M. M., et al, Organic dust ignition in the high temperature flow behind a shock wave, Process safety and environmental protection, 75.1 (1997): 14-18.
[2] Liu, Yi, Jinhua Sun, and Dongliang Chen, Flame propagation in hybrid mixture of coal dust and methane, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 20.4 (2007): 691-697.
[3] Proust, Ch, A few fundamental aspects about ignition and flame propagation in dust clouds, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 19.2 (2006): 104-120.
[ 4] Proust, Christophe, Flame propagation and combustion in some dust-air mixtures, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 19 .1 (2006): 89-100.
[5] Eckhoff, Rolf K, Differences and similarities of gas and dust explosions: a critical evaluation of the European 'ATEX'directives in relation to dusts, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 19.6 (2006): 553-560.
[6] Chen, Zhihua, and Baochun Fan, Flame propagation through aluminum particle cloud in a combustion tube, Journal of Loss Prevention in theProcess Industries 18.1 (2005): 13-19.
[7] Shoshin, Y., and E. Dreizin, Particle combustion rates in premixed flames of polydisperse metal­air aerosols, Combustion and Flame 133.3 (2003):
275- 287.
[8] Bidabadi, M., and A. Rahbari, Modeling combustion oflycopodium particles by considering the temperature difference between the gas and the particles, Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves 45.3 (2009): 278-285.
[9] Bidabadi, Mehdi, and Alireza Rahbari, Novel analytical model for predicting the combustion characteristics of premixed flame propagation in lycopodium dust particles, Journal of mechanical science and technology 23.9 (2009): 2417-2423.
[ 10] Bidabadi, Mehdi, Ashkan Shakibi, and Alireza Rahbari, The radiation and heat loss effects on the premixed flame propagation through lycopodium dust particles, Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 42.1 (2011): 180-185.
[11] Essenhigh, Robert H., and Joseph Csaba, The thermal radiation theory for plane flame propagation in coal dust clouds, Symposium (International) on Combustion. Vol. 9. No. 1. Elsevier, 1963.
[12] Bhaduri, D., and S. Bandyopadhyay, Combustion in coal dust flames, Combustion and Flame 17 .1 (1971): 15-24.
[13] Ozerova, G. E., and A. M. Stepanov, Effect of radiation on flame propagation through a gas suspension of solid fuel particles, Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves 9.5 (1973): 543-549.
[14] Smoot, L. Douglas, and M. Duane Horton, Propagation of laminar pulverized coal-air flames,Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 3 .4 (1977): 235-258.
[15] Krazinski, John L., Richard 0. Buckius, and Herman Krier, Coal dust flames: A review and development of a model for flame propagation, Progress in Energy and Combustion science 5 .1 (1979): 31-71.
[16] Slezak, Scott E., Richard 0. Buckius, andHerman Krier, A model of flame propagation in rich mixtures of coal dust in air, Combustion and flame 59.3 (1985): 251-265. 
[17] Mills, K., and M. Matalon, Burner-generated spherical diffusion flames, Combustion science and technology 129.1-6 (1997): 295-319.
[18] Cheatham, S., and M. Matalon, Heat loss and Lewis number effects on the onset of oscillations in diffusion flames, Symposium (International) on Combustion. Vol. 26. No. 1. Elsevier, 1996.
[19] Mills, K., and M. Ma talon, Extinction of sphericaldiffusion flames in the presence of radiant loss, Symposium (International) on Combustion. Vol.27. No. 2. Elsevier, 1998.
[20] Spalding, D. V, The theory of steady laminar spherical flame propagation: Equations and numerical solution, Combustion and Flame 4 (1960): 51-58.
[21] Spalding, D. B., and V. K. Jain, The theory of steady laminar spherical flame propagation: Analytical solutions, Combustion and Flame 5 (1961): 11-18.
[22] He, Longting, Critical conditions for spherical flame initiation in mixtures with high Lewis numbers, Combustion Theory and Modelling 4.2 (2000): 159-172.
[24] Chen, Zheng, and Yiguang Ju, Theoretical analysis of the evolution from ignition kernel to flame ball and planar flame, Combustion Theory and Modelling 11.3 (2007): 427-453.
[25] Zhang, Huangwei, and Zheng Chen, Spherical flame initiation and propagation with thermally sensitive intermediate kinetics, Combustion and Flame 158.8 (2011): 1520-1531.
[26] Greenberg, J. B, Propagation and extinction of an unsteady spherical spray flame front, Combustion Theory and Modelling 7.1 (2003): 163-174.
[27] Greenberg, J. B, Finite-rate evaporation and droplet drag effects in spherical flame front propagation through a liquid fuel mist, Combustion and flame 148.4 (2007): 187-197.
[28] Mehdi Bidabadi, Abazar Vahdat Azad, Effects of radiation on propagating spherical flames of dust-air mixtures, Powder Technology 276 (2015)45-59
[29] Taylor, Simon Crispin. Burning velocity and the influence of flame stretch. Diss. University of Leeds, 1991.
[30] Markstein, George H, Experimental and theoretical studies of flame-front stability, Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences (2012).
[31] Strehlow, R. A., L. D. Savage, and S. C. Sorenson, Coal dust combustion and suppression, AIAA/SAE 10 th Propulsion Conference. 1974.