Activated pharmaceutical ingredients produced by microreactors versus batch processes: A review

Document Type : Review article

Authors

Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

In the pharmaceutical industry, drug synthesis is usually carried out by batch method. However, in recent years, continuous methods, specifically microfluidics and microreactors, have attracted a great deal of attention due to advantages such as better mass and heat transfer, safety, selectivity, yield, and surface-to-volume ratio. Thus, in this review, different microreactor properties such as flow regime pattern, operating pressure, selectivity, safety, reaction phase, operating and control, materials, and cost are addressed and discussed. In addition, microreactor applications in the synthesis of chemicals and drugs, polymerization, nanoparticle synthesis, photochemical, biodiesel production, and catalytic microreactors are presented in detail. Furthermore, a comparison of the flow process of a pharmaceutical industry's microreactor and a batch reactor used for different APIs, intermediates, and lead compounds is presented. The results revealed that 50% of such reactions would show more promising results when carried out in a microreactor system, while only 44% of examined cases preferred such systems. Ultimately, these authors believe that the current review is very suitable for newcomers in pharmaceutical industry material production research who might be attracted to this new technology due to the elementary and basic microfluidics concepts discussed in the present manuscript.

Graphical Abstract

Activated pharmaceutical ingredients produced by microreactors versus batch processes: A review

Highlights

  • The importance of the new technology ‘microfluidic and microreactor’ in pharmaceutical industry is addressed.
  • The properties of micro reactor and its benefits toward batch reactor (yield, conversion, mass transfer and heat transfer) are discussed.
  • Syntheses of active pharmaceutical ingredients, intermediates and lead compounds are reported employing microreactors and continuous flow technology.

Keywords

Main Subjects


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Volume 8, Issue 2
November 2022
Pages 63-78
  • Receive Date: 25 December 2022
  • Revise Date: 29 January 2023
  • Accept Date: 01 February 2023
  • First Publish Date: 01 February 2023