FCC catalyst attrition behavior at high temperatures

Document Type : Research Article


1 Faculty of Petrochemicals, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran, Iran

2 RFCC Senior Process Engineer, Process Engineering Department, Arak Oil Refinery, Arak, Iran


In this work, high temperature attrition was studied in a standard attrition set-up to mimic the FCC regenerator environment with mechanical attrition. Operating conditions were modified in this pilot due to the application of high temperatures. Two parameters, i.e., time and temperature in the ranges of 1 to 5h and 673-973K, were surveyed, respectively. The behavior of attrition and mass loss was then modeled and validated. At higher temperatures mass loss response sensitivity became larger. Finally, PSD and SEM tests were used to investigate the attrition mechanism. In the ambient tests, abrasion was significant while at higher temperatures, fragmentation was considerable. PSD plots shifted into larger particles and SEM images showed those changes as well. In addition, significant reshaping in the PSD curves indicated particle cracking at high temperatures.

Graphical Abstract

FCC catalyst attrition behavior at high temperatures


  • High temperature attrition tests which mimic the regenerator condition has been carried out on a FCC catalyst.
  • Considerable reshaping of PSD plots reported extreme particles cracking at high temperature.
  • Attrition process contour plots addressed optimization point and interaction between temperature and time.


[1] F. Scala, R. Chirone, P. Salatino, in: F. Scala (Ed.), Fluidized bed technologies for near-zero emission combustion and gasification, Woodhead Publishing Limited, New York (2013).
[2] J. Werther, J. Reppenhagen, in: W.C. Yang (Ed.), Handbook of fluidization and fluid-particle systems, Marcel Dekker, New York (2003).
[3] T.J. Jones, J.K. Russel, C.J. Lim, N. Ellis, J.R. Grace, Pumice attrition in an air jet, Powder Technol. 308 (2017) 298-305.
[4] W.L. Forsythe, W.R. Hertwig, Attrition characteristics of fluid cracking catalysts-laboratory studies, J. Ind. Chem. Res. 41 (1949) 1200-1206.
[5] J. Hao, Y. Zhao, M. Ye, Z. Liu, Attrition of methanol to olefins catalyst in jet cup, Powder Technol. 316 (2017) 79-86.
[6] A. Knight, N. Ellis, J.R. Grace, C.J. Lim, CO2 sorbent attrition testing for fluidized bed systems, Powder Technol. 266 (2014) 412-423.
[7] Z. Sun, M. Xiao, S. Wang, D. Han, S. Song, G. Chenb, Y. Meng, Electrostatic shield effect: an effective way to suppress dissolution of polysulfide anions in lithium-sulfur battery, J. Mater. Chem. 2 (2014) 15938-15944.
[8] B. Ambelard, S. Bertholin, C. Bobin, T. Gauthier, Development of an attrition evaluation method using a Jet Cup rig, Powder Technol. 274 (2015) 455-465.
[9] Y.C. Ray, T.S. Jiang, C.Y. Wen, Particle attrition phenomena in a fluidized bed, Powder Technol. 100 (1998) 193-206.
[10] C.R. Bemrose, J. Bridgewater, A review of attrition and attrition test methods, Powder Technol. 49 (1987) 97-126
[11] K.R. Yuregir, M. Ghadiri, R. Clift, Impact attrition of sodium chloride crystals, Chem. Eng. Sci. 42 (1987) 843-853.
[12] M. Ghadiri, K.R. Yuregir, H.M. Pollock, J.D.J. Ross, N. Rolfe, Influence of processing conditions on attrition of NaCl crystals, Powder Technol. 65 (1991) 311-320.
[13] J.A.S. Cleaver, M. Ghadiri, Impact attrition of sodium carbonate monohydrate crystals, Powder Technol. 76 (1993) 15-22.
[14] J.J. Pis, A. B. Fuertes, V. Artos, A. Suarez, F. Rubiera, Attrition of coal ash in afluidized bed, Powder Technol. 66 (1991) 41-46.
[15] J. Tomeczek, P. Mocek, Attrition of coal ash particles in a fluidized-bed reactor, AICHE J. 53 (2007) 1159-1163.
[16] D.S. Kalakkad, M.D. Shroff, S. Köhler, N. Jackson, A.K. Datye, Attrition of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, Appl. Catal. A, 133 (1995) 335-350.
[17] R. Zhao, J.G. Goodwin Jr., K. Juthimurugesan, S. K. Gangwal, J.J. Spivey, Spray-dried iron Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. 1. Effect of structure on the attrition resistance of the catalysts in the calcined state, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 40 (2001) 1065-1075.
[18] R. Zhao, J.G. Goodwin Jr., K. Juthimurugesan, S. K. Gangwal, J.J. Spivey, Spray-dried iron Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. 2. Effect of carbonization on catalyst attrition resistance, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 40 (2001) 1320-1328.
[19] T.J. Lin, X. Meng, L. Shi, Attrition studies of an iron Fischer-Tropsch catalyst used in a pilot-scale stirred tank slurry reactor, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 51 (2012) 13123-13131.
[20] M.Stein, J.P.K. Seville, D.J. Parker, Attrition of porous glass particles in a fluidized bed, Powder Technol. 100 (1998) 242-250.
[21] L. Guo, H.B. Zhao, J.C. Ma, D.F. Mei, C.G. Zheng, Comparison of large-scale production methods of Fe2O3/Al2O3 oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion, Chem. Eng. Technol. 37 (2014) 1211-1219.
[22] M. Arjmand, V. Frick, M. Ryden, H. Leion, T.P. Mattisson, A. Lyngfelt, Energ. Fuel. 29 (2015) 1868-1880.
[23] G. Azimi, T. Mattison, H. Leion, M. Ryden, A. Lyngfeld, Comprehensive study of Mn-Fe-Al oxygen-carriers for chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU), Int. Greenh. Gas Con. 34 (2015) 12-24.
[24] F. Scala, A. Cammarota, R. Chironne, P. Salatino, Comminution of limestone during batch fluidized-bed calcination and sulfation, AICHE J. 43 (1997) 363-373.
[25] C.L. Lin, M.Y. Wey, Effects of high temperature and combustion on fluidized material attrition in a fluidized bed, Korean J. Chem. Eng. 20 (2003) 1123-1130.
[26] C.L. Lin, M.Y. Wey, Influence of hydrodynamic parameters on particle attrition during fluidization at high temperature, Korean. J. Chem. Eng. 22 (2005) 154-160.
[27] Z. Chen, C.J. Lim, J.R. Grace, Study of limestone particle impact attrition, Chem. Eng. Sci. 62 (2007) 867-877.
[28] Y.C. Ray, T.S. Jiang, T.L. Jiang, Particle population model for a fluidized bed with attrition, Powder Technol. 52 (1987) 35-48.
[29] Z. Chen, J.R. Grace, C.J. Lim, Limestone particle attrition and size distribution in a small circulating fluidized bed, Fuel, 87 (2008) 1360-1371.
[30] Z. Chen, J.R. Grace, C.J. Lim, Development of particle size distribution during limestone impact attrition, Powder Technol. 207 (2011) 55-64.
[31] F. Li, C. Briens, F. Berruti, J. McMillan, Particle attrition with supersonic nozzles in a fluidized bed at high temperature, Powder Technol. 228 (2012) 285-294.
[32] M. Hartman, K. Svoboda, M. Pohorely, M. Syc, M. Jeremias, Attrition of dolomitic lime in a fluidized-bed reactor at high temperature, Chem. Pap. 67 (2013) 164-172.
[33] W.L. Forsythe, W.R. Hertwig, Attrition characteristics of fluid cracking catalysts. Laboratory studies, Ind. Eng. Chem. 41 (1949) 1200-1206.
[34] ASTM-D-5757-00, Standard test method for determination of attrition and abrasion of powdered catalysts by air jet, ASTM (2006).