Drying of calcium carbonate in a batch spouted bed dryer: optimization and kinetics modeling

Document Type : Research Paper


1 School of Chemical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran, Iran

2 Material and Nuclear Fuel research school, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran, Iran


In the present work, the drying of calcium carbonate in a batch spouted bed dryer with inert particles has been investigated experimentally. The effect of several operating parameters including air temperature (90, 100, and 110 ˚C), air velocity (Ums, 1.2 Ums, and 1.5 Ums), and dry solid mass (5, 10, 20 g) has been studied. The Taguchi method has been applied to determine the optimal parameters and also to reduce the number of required experimental runs. It has been found that the dryer performance was affected by all parameters. It has also been found that drying with 5 g dry solid at a temperature of 100 ˚C and a velocity of 1.2 Ums leads to maximum drying efficiency. Additionally, the effect of air inlet velocity and temperature on the drying kinetics of calcium carbonate has been investigated. Several semi-theoretical models with temperature and velocity dependent parameters have been selected to estimate the drying kinetics. The performance of all fitted models was acceptable but the logarithmic model was the best model in terms of the statistical analysis.


  • A new batch spouted bed dryer was investigated for drying calcium carbonate.
  • A new criterion has been introduced to measure the effective efficiency of the drying process.
  • The drying kinetics have been modelled using semi-theoretical approaches.


[1] G. Zhu, H. Li, S. Li, X. Hou, D. Xu, R. Lin, Q. Tang, Crystallization behavior and kinetics of calcium carbonate in highly alkaline and supersaturated system, J. Cryst. Growth, 428 (2015) 16-23.
[2] T. Stirnimann, S. Atria, J. Schoelkopf, P.A. Gane, R. Alles, J. Huwyler, M. Puchkov, Compaction of functionalized calcium carbonate, a porous and crystalline microparticulate material with a lamellar surface, Int. J. Pharm. 466 (2014) 266-275.
[3] C. Bacher, P. Olsen, P. Bertelsen, J. Kristensen, J. Sonnergaard, Improving the compaction properties of roller compacted calcium carbonate, Int. J. Pharm. 342 (2007) 115-123.
[4] T. Paseephol, D.M. Small, F. Sherkat, Lactulose production from milk concentration permeate using calcium carbonate-based catalysts, Food Chem. 111 (2008) 283-290.
[5] H. Zhang, J. Chen, H. Zhou, G. Wang, J. Yun, Preparation of nano-sized precipitated calcium carbonate for PVC plastisol rheology modification, J. Mater. Sci. 21 (2002) 1305-1306.
[6] M. Di Lorenzo, M. Errico, M. Avella, Thermal and morphological characterization of poly (ethylene terephthalate)/calcium carbonate nanocomposites, J. Mater. Sci. 37 (2002) 2351-2358.
[7] J. Gullichsen, C-J. Fogelholm, Papermaking science and technology book 6A: chemical pulping, Finish Paper Engineers Association and TAPPI, Finland, 1999.
[8] C. Petersen, C. Heldmann, D. Johannsmann, Internal stresses during film formation of polymer latices, Langmuir, 15 (1999) 7745-7751.
[9] F. He, J. Zhang, F. Yang, J. Zhu, X. Tian, X. Chen, In vitro degradation and cell response of calcium carbonate composite ceramic in comparison with other synthetic bone substitute materials, Mater. Sci. Eng. C. 50 (2015) 257-265.
[10] L. Simão, R. Caldato, M. Innocentini, O. Montedo, Permeability of porous ceramic based on calcium carbonate as pore generating agent, Ceram. Int. 41 (2015) 4782-4788.
[11] C. Nover, H. Dillenburg, US Patent No. 0276897A1, (issued Dec. 15, 2005).
[12] J.B. Foster, EP Patent No. 1790616A1, (issued May. 30, 2007).
[13] J.B. Foster, EP Patent No. 1790616B1, (issued Mar. 9, 2011).
[14] S. Teir, S. Eloneva, R. Zevenhoven, Production of precipitated calcium carbonate from calcium silicates and carbon dioxide, Energ. Convers. Manage. 46 (2005) 2954-2979.
[15] T. Vehmas, U. Kanerva, E. Holt, Spray-Dry Agglomerated Nanoparticles in Ordinary Portland Cement Matrix, Mater. Sci. Appl. 5 (2014) 837-844.
[16] M. Markowski, I. Białobrzewski, A. Modrzewska, Kinetics of spouted-bed drying of barley: Diffusivities for sphere and ellipsoid, J. Food Eng. 96 (2010) 380-387.
[17] N. Epstein, J.R. Grace, Spouted and spout-fluid beds: fundamentals and applications, Cambridge University Press, 2010.
[18] A.D.A. Araújo, R.M. Coelho, C.P.M. Fontes, A.R.A. Silva, J.M.C. da Costa, S. Rodrigues, Production and spouted bed drying of acerola juice containing oligosaccharides, Food Bioprod. Process. 94 (2015) 565-571.
[19] Z.L. Arsenijević, Z.B. Grbavcić, R.V. Garić-Grulović, Drying of suspensions in the draft tube spouted bed, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 82 (2004) 450-464.
[20] S. Tia, C. Tangsatitkulchai, P. Dumronglaohapun, Continuous drying of slurry in a jet spouted bed, Drying Technol. 13 (1995) 1825-1840.
[21] K. Mathur, N. Epstein, Spouted Beds, Academic Press, New York, 1974.
[22] F.G. Cunha, K.G. Santos, C.H. Ataíde, N. Epstein, M.A. Barrozo, Annatto powder production in a spouted bed: an experimental and CFD study, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 48 (2008) 976-982.
[23] Z.B. Grbavcic, Z.L. Arsenijevic, R.V. Garic-Grulovic, Drying of slurries in fluidized bed of inert particles, Drying Technol. 22 (2004) 1793-1812.
[24] M. Passos, A. Mujumdar, Effect of cohesive forces on fluidized and spouted beds of wet particles, Powder Technol. 110 (2000) 222-238.
[25] M. Passos, G. Massarani, J. Freire, and A. Mujumdar, Drying of pastes in spouted beds of inert particles: Design criteria and modeling, Drying Technol., 15 (1997) 605-624.
[26] T. Kudra, A.S. Mujumdar, Advanced drying technologies, Second Ed. CRC Press, 2009.
[27] T. Schneider, J. Bridgwater, The stability of wet spouted beds, Drying Technol. 11 (1993) 277-301.
[28] Q. Guo, S. Hikida, Y. Takahashi, N. Nakagawa, K. Kato, Drying of microparticle slurry and salt-water solution by a powder-particle spouted bed, J. Chem. Eng. Jpn. 29 (1996) 152-158.
[29] T. Nakazato, Y. Liu, K. Sato, K. Kato, Semi-dry process for production of very fine calcium carbonate powder by a powder-particle spouted bed, J. Chem. Eng. Jpn. 35 (2002) 409-414.
[30] M. Benali M. Amazouz, Effect of Drying Aid Agents on Processing of Sticky Materials, Dev. Chem. Eng. Min. Process. 10 (2002) 401-414.
[31] Z.L. Arsenijević, Ž.B. Grbavčić, R.V. Garić-Grulović, Prediction of the particle circulation rate in a draft tube spouted bed suspension dryer, J. Serb. Chem. Soc. 71 (2006) 401-412.
[32] Z.L. Arsenijević, Ž.B. Grbavčić, R.V. Garić-Grulović, Drying of solutions and suspensions in the modified spouted bed with draft tube, J. Therm. Sci. 6 (2002) 47-70.
[33] A. Almeida, F. Freire, J. Freire, Transient analysis of pasty material drying in a spouted bed of inert particles, Dry. Technol. 28 (2010) 330-340.
[34] S.M. Tasirin, S.K. Kamarudin, J.A. Ghani, K. Lee, Optimization of drying parameters of bird’s eye chilli in a fluidized bed dryer, J. Food Eng. 80 (2007) 695-700.
[35] R. Moreno, G. Antolín, A. Reyes, Thermal behaviour of forest biomass drying in a mechanically agitated fluidized bed, Lat. Am. Appl. Res. 37 (2007) 105-113.
[36] K. Uday, J. Prathyusha, D. Singh, P. Apte, Application of the Taguchi Method in Establishing Criticality of Parameters that Influence Cracking Characteristics of Fine-Grained Soils, Dry. Technol. 33 (2015) 1138-1149.
[37] S.K. Karna, R. Sahai, An overview on Taguchi method, Int. J. Eng. Math. Sci. 1 (2012) 1-7.
[38] S.M. Tasirin, I. Puspasari, L.J. Xing, Z. Yaakob, J.A. Ghani, Energy optimization of fluidized bed drying of orange peel using Taguchi method, World Appl. Sci. J. 26 (2013) 1602-1609.
[39] S. Athreya, Y. Venkatesh, Application of Taguchi method for optimization of process parameters in improving the surface roughness of lathe facing operation, Int. Ref. J. Eng. Sci. 1 (2012) 13-19.
[40] H.-H. Chen, C.-C. Chung, H.-Y. Wang, T.-C. Huang, Application of Taguchi method to optimize extracted ginger oil in different drying conditions, IPCBEE May, 9 (2011) 310-316.
[41] J. López-Cacho, P.L. González-R, B. Talero, A. Rabasco, M. González-Rodríguez, Robust optimization of alginate-carbopol 940 bead formulations, Sci. World J. (2012) 1-15, Article ID 605610.
[42] M. Perea-Flores, V. Garibay-Febles, J.J. Chanona-Perez, G. Calderon-Dominguez, J.V. Mendez-Mendez, E. Palacios-González, G.F. Gutierrez-Lopez, Mathematical modelling of castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis) drying kinetics in fluidized bed at high temperatures, Ind. Crops Prod. 38 (2012) 64-71.
[43] E.K. Akpinar, Determination of suitable thin layer drying curve model for some vegetables and fruits, J. Food Eng. 73 (2006) 75-84.
[44] S. Azzouz, A. Guizani, W. Jomaa, A. Belghith, Moisture diffusivity and drying kinetic equation of convective drying of grapes, J. Food Eng. 55 (2002) 323-330.
[45] W.K. Lewis, The Rate of Drying of Solid Materials, Ind. Eng. Chem. 13 (1921) 427-432.
[46] G.E. Page, Factors Influencing the Maximum Rates of Air Drying Shelled Corn in Thin layers, M.Sc. Thesis, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 1949.
[47] S. Hendreson, S. Pabis, Grain drying theory. I. Temperature effect on drying coefficients, J. Agr. Eng. Res. 6 (1961) 169-174.
[48] A. Yagcioglu, Drying characteristic of laurel leaves under different conditions, In: A. Bascetincelik (ED.), Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Agricultural Mechanization and Energy, Adana, Turkey, (1999) 565-569.
[49] A. Balbay, Ö. Şahin, Microwave drying kinetics of a thin-layer liquorice root, Dry. Technol. 30 (2012) 859-864.
[50] G. Dadalı, D. Kılıç Apar, B. Özbek, Microwave drying kinetics of okra, Dry. Technol. 25 (2007) 917-924.
[51] O. Yaldýz, C. Ertekýn, Thin layer solar drying of some vegetables, Dry. Technol. 19 (2001) 583-597.
[52] A. Magalhães, C. Pinho, Spouted bed drying of cork stoppers, Chem. Eng. Process. Process Intensif., 47 (2008) 2395-2401.
[53] J.C. Lagarias, J.A. Reeds, M.H. Wright, P.E. Wright, Convergence properties of the Nelder-Mead simplex method in low dimensions, SIAM J. Optim. 9 (1998) 112-147.
[54] J. Stoer, R. Bulirsch, Introduction to numerical analysis, Second Ed., Springer-Verlag New York, 2013.
[55] M. Satter, Optimization of copra drying factors by Taguchi method, 4th International Conference on Mechanical Engineering, Dhaka, Bangladesh (ICME2001) (2001) III 23-27.
[56] A.S. Mujumdar, Principles, classification, and selection of dryers, Handbook of Industrial Drying, Fourth Ed, CRC Press, 2014.
[57] W. Wagner, A. Pruß, The IAPWS formulation 1995 for the thermodynamic properties of ordinary water substance for general and scientific use, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data. 31 (2002) 387-535.
Volume 3, Issue 2
June 2017
Pages 89-99
  • Receive Date: 10 June 2017
  • Revise Date: 12 July 2017
  • Accept Date: 23 July 2017
  • First Publish Date: 23 July 2017