The influence of cellulose pulp and cellulose microfibers on the flexural performance of green-engineered cementitious composites

Document Type : Research Article


School of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran


The aim of this study was to investigate the flexural behavior of engineered cementitious composites (ECCs) reinforced by cellulose pulp (CP) and cellulose microfibers (CMF). The reinforcements were obtained from chemical-mechanical treatments of Kraft paper and used in ECC mix design. Results showed that cement reinforced by CP exhibited a strain-hardening behavior in the three-point bending test, while CMF led to a brittle behavior in cement composites. Moreover, different hybrid combinations of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and CMF  achieved quite a high strength while maintaining a high level of flexural toughness. A combination of 0.5 vol% CMF and 1.5 vol% PVA resulted in a significant increase in flexural toughness and a slight improvement in flexural strength. The properties of this hybrid composite were comparable with one containing 2 vol% of PVA fiber.


  • Mechanical and chemical treatment of Kraf paper to produce cellulose pulp (CP) and cellulose microfibers (CMF)
  • Investigation of flexural properties of cementitious composites reinforced by CP and CMF
  • Comparison of flexural behavior cement composites reinforced by CP, CMF and PVA fiber 
  • Preparation and study of hybrid engineered cementitious composites (ECC) by using a mixture of CMF and PVA fiber.


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