Synthesis and Statistical Analysis of Changing Size of Nano-structured PbO2 during Mechanical Milling Using Taguchi Methodology

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Quchan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Quchan, Iran

2 Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran

3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


The research investigates synthesized Nano-structured PbO2 using ball milling. The structure and morphology of the samples were determined in the process of milling by means of XRD and SEM. The size of particles was estimated through DLS analysis. The TEM image of the synthesized powder verifies the achievement of Nano dimensions. Design and analyses of the results using Taguchi methodology reveal that the size of synthesized Nano-structured PbO2 decreases as ball to powder ratio (BPR) increases while the average size of the particles increases as mechanical milling speed increases from 200 to 250 rpm. Considering the results of TEM, the size of the synthesized Nano-structured PbO2 by means of mechanical milling was estimated to be 50 Nanometers. In addition, the even distribution and spherical morphology of the synthesized powder by this method is crystal clear in SEM images. Additionally, the result of the statistical analysis of particle size based on the effective parameters by means of Minitab software showed that BPR parameter had the greatest impact on the size of particles; BPR increase improved the objective parameter as compared with other parameters under study. According to the results obtained by Minitab software and considering the little influence of time on particle size decrease and in order to minimize the costs of synthesis, it is suggested the synthesis process be done in two hours and the BPR parameters be increased so as to decrease the size of particles.


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Volume 2, Issue 1
March 2016
Pages 49-54
  • Receive Date: 28 September 2016
  • Revise Date: 08 November 2016
  • Accept Date: 13 November 2016
  • First Publish Date: 13 November 2016