Heavy metal removal using SnO2 nanoparticles prepared in a grape extract media

Document Type : Research Article


Advanced Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran


SnO2 nanoparticles were first synthesized using a grape extract media, then characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, BET, and DLS techniques, and finally used as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions from wastewater. The prepared sample had a tetragonal phase with an average crystallite size of 41 nm (XRD analysis), a specific surface area of 47.08 m2.g-1 (BET method)/46.25 m2.g-1 (BJH method), and a pore diameter of 6.49 nm (BJH method). The best conditions for adsorbing were a 30 ppm concentration of metal ions, ambient temperature, pH of 6, and 0.025 g of an adsorbent. The maximum adsorption for Pb and Cd ions was 97 and 93%, respectively. The Elovich model was matched as the most suitable kinetic model, indicating that the adsorption mechanism is chemical adsorption. The negative values of ΔG (Pb: -6.38 kJ.mol-1; Cd: -4.16 kJ.mol-1) represent the spontaneousness of the adsorption process. The negative values of the parameters ΔH (Pb: -63.0 kJ.mol-1; Cd: -42.95  kJ.mol-1) and ΔS (Pb: -188.8 J.mol-1; Cd: -128.4 J.mol-1) represent the exothermic nature of the adsorption.

Graphical Abstract

Heavy metal removal using SnO2 nanoparticles prepared in a grape extract media


  • The biosynthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles using a grape extract media is reported.
  • SnO2 nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, FESEM, TEM, BET, and DLS techniques.
  • SnO2 nanoparticles were used as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions from wastewater.
  • The effect of different parameters including adsorbent dosage, Cd and Pb concentration, temperature, and on the adsorption was investigated.


Main Subjects

Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by IROST.

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Volume 9, Issue 2
November 2023
Pages 51-61
  • Receive Date: 07 July 2023
  • Revise Date: 17 November 2023
  • Accept Date: 18 November 2023
  • First Publish Date: 18 November 2023