Synthesizing Fe3O4, Mn3O4 and Mn3O4/Fe3O4 nanocatalysts using the sol-gel method as new precursors for the degradation of phenol by catalytic ozonation

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Chemical Technologies, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST)


Ozone has received much attention in wastewater treatment as an impressive oxidation agent. In this work, three new metal complexes, [pyda.H][Fe(pydc)(pydc.H)].H2O, (I); [pyda.H][Fe(pydc)2].H2O, (II); and [pyda.H2]5[Mn(pydc.H)2].[pydc]5.8H2O, (III), where [pyda.H]+ = 2,6 -diaminopyridinium and [pydc]2- = 2,6 -pyridinedicarboxylate, have been synthesized by the ultrasonic-assisted synthesis method and then characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric (TGA), and elemental analyses. According to the SEM image, the morphology of compound III was a nanorod. Compounds I, II, and III were then used as precursors for the preparation of Fe3O4, Mn3O4, and Mn3O4/Fe3O4 using the sol-gel and impregnation methods, respectively. Characterization of the synthesized nano-catalysts was carried out by FE-SEM, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and energy diffraction X-ray (EDX), the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) was replaced by magnetic studies. The VSM result showed that Fe3O4 and Mn3O4/Fe3O4 were superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic compounds, respectively. The Mn3O4, Mn3O4/Fe3O4, and Fe3O4 nanocatalysts were applied for the decomposition of phenol in an aqueous solution by catalytic ozonation. Phenol degradation efficiency was obtained as 97.26, 97.74, and 88.62 %, respectively.

Graphical Abstract

Synthesizing Fe3O4, Mn3O4 and Mn3O4/Fe3O4 nanocatalysts using the sol-gel method as new precursors for the degradation of phenol by catalytic ozonation


  • New supramolecules of Fe(II), Fe(III) and Mn(II) with ligand LH2, [pyda.H2]2+[pydc]2-, (pyda = 2 , 6 -pyridinediamine and pydc.H2 = 2 , 6 -pyridinedicarboxylic acid) were prepared.
  • The supramolecules were used for the preparation of nanocatalysts Fe3O4, Mn3O4 and Mn3O4/Fe3O4.
  • The nanocatalysts were applied for degradation of phenol by ozonation.
  • The combined usage of O3 and Mn3O4, Mn3O4/Fe3O4, Fe3O4 nano-catalysts leads to a conspicuous Mn3O4 > Mn3O4/Fe3O4 > Fe3O4 for degradation and mineralization of phenol.


Main Subjects

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Volume 8, Issue 1
May 2022
Pages 39-51
  • Receive Date: 13 August 2022
  • Revise Date: 11 November 2022
  • Accept Date: 19 November 2022
  • First Publish Date: 19 November 2022