Assessment of Atmospheric Heavy Metals from Transport Pool within Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria

Document Type : Research Paper


department of chemical engineering, university of ilorin, kwara state



Particulate emissions from the high density of vehicles have become a subject of interest and great concern for assessment on local air quality within Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria. This study aims at the determination of possible heavy metal pollutions from vehicular emission along the major transport pool within the Ilorin metropolis. Deposition gauges were placed above human breathing height of 1.5 m on a pole at selected major roundabouts within the Ilorin metropolis. The gauges were planted for a month (27th of April to 30th of May, 2020.) during the Covid-19 lockdown and (15th of January to 14th of February, 2021) after the Covid-19 lockdown. The collected samples were rinsed with deionized water, filtered and dried in a desiccator. The dried samples were characterized using Energy-Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). Twenty-one heavy metals were detected in all the sampling locations. The total sum concentrations of the heavy metals recorded during and after the Covid-19 lockdown was
1018.58785 mg/m3 and 1359.15479 mg/m3 respectively. The averaged measured concentration of most of the heavy metals sampled along selected major roundabouts within the Ilorin metropolis during and after Covid-19 lockdown exceeded the permissible emission limit. The Deposition Flux (DF) of the measured heavy metals ranged from 4.53 –8.91 g/m2.month during the lockdown and ranged from 6.23 –29.55 g/m2.month after the lockdown. The enrichment factor and Concentration ratio were also determined. This study suggested the need to shift from fossil fuel economy to hydrogen economy to mitigate heavy metal pollutions from vehicular emissions to the barest minimum.


Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 28 August 2021
  • Receive Date: 28 July 2021
  • Revise Date: 30 August 2021
  • Accept Date: 23 August 2021